segunda-feira, setembro 30, 2013

Anarchy in Detroit


The Mower Gang<, Part 1 | Detroit Threat Management, Part II | Fireweed Universe City, Part III | Belle Isle Commonwealth, Part IV

Have you accepted the Government into your heart?

Let's Go, Let's Gov (South Park)

Música Liberal do Dia


Sam The Kid - Abstenção

Eu só voto na verdade e não a vejo em nenhum partido /
/ Eu sou a percentagem que a sondagem nunca mostra /
/ eu sou a anti-comparência, eu sou abstenção/

The Non-Aggression Axiom

The Non-Aggression Axiom:
I see the non-aggression axiom as pretty much the essence of Libertarianism. The way I see it is sort of like a tepee, you know, with sticks, and there are little bits of sticks pointing above the tent and then there’s where all the sticks come together, and then the sticks go down to the grown at the bottom of the tepee. And right where all the sticks come together is the non-aggression axiom. And that’s the essence of Libertarianism.
And the non-aggression axiom says that there’s only — well, it says, in fact, that there are only — you have a wonderful pink tie, Lew, and I’ve been admiring your pink tie. And there are two ways that I can get that pink tie from you. One, I can do it compatibly with the non-aggression axiom, and the other, I can do it incompatibly. Well, what would be compatible? Well, one way, I’d say, “Lew, I’ll give you five bucks for the tie.” And you say no. And I say, “How about 10, 20, 50″? Or I can say, “I’ll be your best friend forever if you give me the tie or I’ll give you my watch for your tie.” Any of these ways would be the voluntary way. And this is compatible with Libertarianism. But then what I could do is grab the tie and pull it and run away with it, or I could pull a gun and say, “Unless you give me the tie, I’m going to shoot you,” or something like that. And that would violate the non-aggressive axiom ..
Now, when you tell most people that, and you say that’s all Libertarianism says, most people say, “Well, I’m a Libertarian; I don’t believe in grabbing your tie.” The difference between Libertarians and most people who give lip service to the non-aggression axiom is that we really mean it. We’re rabid. We make deductions from it. And you know in sports they say the way to success is to keep your eye on the ball? Well, in political economy, the way to be successful, from a Libertarian perspective in any case, is to keep your eye on the non-aggression axiom; never violate it no matter what.

domingo, setembro 29, 2013

Ron Paul On Gun Control


Ron Paul On Gun Control The Tonight Show With Jay Leno

Socialism is Stupidism

Rant Liberal do Dia

Bom dia de eleições! Há que ir votar, porque em democracia todos votamos para decidir os assuntos da vida dos outros. Trata-se portanto de assumir controlo sobre a sua própria vida! Se uma pessoa não for votar, pode acontecer que os outros milhões de pessoas sejam a maioria, e decidam muitas coisas que não nos convêm, e depois há que esperar mais 4-5 anos... /sarcasmo

sábado, setembro 28, 2013

a new gold standard

Prepare for a new gold standard:
We are now seeing a battle in the gold market, which reflects a broader currency war. The central planners are holding down the gold prices, while China, Russia, India and other central banks and funds are accumulating physical gold in preparation for a big change. This seesaw battle will continue until the great unravelling.

Interest rates are on a rise. If the US Federal Reserve fails to get control over the bond market, we are going to witness a crisis. Then gold will shine again as China and other countries move to adopt a gold standard to replace the fiat currency system. By that time, history will have been rewritten.

Charter Cities (14)

No seguimento de Charter Cities (13), Startup City Redux ’ Honduras: from RED to ZEDE to … Freedom?:
This column reported in November 2012 on an effort in Honduras to establish a unique kind of special development region. These regions, called RED after their Spanish acronym, would have created new cities with unprecedented independence from the central government. The RED had many supporters in the Honduran government’s executive and legislative branches, who aimed to bring low taxes, free trade, and the rule of law to their fellow citizens. The judicial branch did not share the enthusiasm, however.

The Supreme Court, worried that the RED statute would allow foreign sovereigns to rule Honduran territory, struck it down as unconstitutional. The first effort to establish in Honduras what have been called “startup” cities thus died. But Honduran reformers did not give up.
Soon the Honduran National Congress was considering legislation that would create Zonas de Empleo y Desarrollo Económico, (“Zones for Employment and Development of the Economy”), called “ZEDE” for short ..

In broad terms, the ZEDE legislation authorizes the creation of startup cities that will operate under the supervision, but not direct control, of the central government ..
Honduran reformers have won a great victory in passing the ZEDE legislation. Many hurdles remain before they cut the ribbon on their first startup city ..

Honduran reformers have already won many victories in their fight for startup cities, though. Twice they have amended their constitution; twice they have passed comprehensive enabling legislation. They have given a bold and uniquely Honduran answer to one of the world’s oldest and hardest questions: How can we live together in peace and prosperity? They have dealt a mortal blow to stasis, the enemy of all progress, and cleared the way toward newer, freer cities.

El Otro Sendero


Conversación sobre el trabajo detrás de la obra "El Otro Sendero"...

País de brandos contribuintes

País de brandos contribuintes:
.. Os contribuintes estão longe de ter a capacidade de mobilização e influência que os sindicatos da função pública e outros lóbis pela despesa têm. Uma segunda razão é o facto de o sistema fiscal ser desenhado de forma a que o contribuinte médio não sinta o peso dos impostos que paga: a chamada anestesia fiscal.

A anestesia fiscal é aplicada de várias formas. A primeira é escondendo o imposto pago, como acontece com o IVA ou o ISP, incorporando-o no preço final do produto. A segunda forma é a de obrigar terceiros a pagar o imposto, como acontece com o IRS. O IRS é um imposto sobre os trabalhadores, mas muitos daqueles que o pagam mal chegam a aperceber-se que existe. A maioria dos trabalhadores relaciona o IRS mais com a memória positiva do reembolso a meio do ano do que com o pagamento mensal efectuado pela sua empresa, mas subtraído do seu salário. O terceiro mecanismo é o de desumanizar o imposto, taxando entidades colectivas, como no caso do IRC. Claro que, na realidade, todos os impostos são pagos por pessoas de carne e osso; no caso do IRC por aqueles que beneficiam da existência da empresa: os seus accionistas, trabalhadores e clientes.
.. não será difícil de imaginar o impacto que contribuintes informados e mobilizados poderiam ter se rejeitassem continuar a financiar o desperdício nas contas públicas.

Are taxes voluntary?


Why does USPS still exist? and Are taxes voluntary? ep#30 www.SuccessCouncil.com

Teachers Leave them kids alone

A School With No Teachers, Where Students Teach Themselves:
A new computer school in Paris has been overwhelmed by some 60,000 applicants.
The school’s name is taken from the science fiction classic, The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy, where 42 is the answer to the question of life.

Sadirac is sure that graduates of 42 will have the real life IT skills to get a job, even though the school’s methods are a complete departure from France’s highly centralized education system. There are no teachers. Students learn by solving problems.

“We don’t want to teach them stuff,” he says. “We want them to find solutions on problems, because we don’t know the problem in the future. So we are creating students able to learn by themselves.”

Bitcoin


The Truth About Bitcoin

Rant Liberal do Dia

Uma consequência do socialismo, que força uns a pagar pela vida dos outros, é a destruição a coesão social. Por exemplo com a lei das rendas os inquilinos querem que os senhorios sejam obrigados a pagar-lhes luxos apesar de rendas de há décadas, os senhorios querem que os inquilinos morram. Uma sociedade mais fraterna. O socialismo, cheio de supostas boas intenções, é uma doença social degenerativa. Ora, sabendo isto, uma pessoa sempre se pode salvaguardar. Mas cabe a todos. Eu francamente não desejo nada de bom a estes senhores do TC.

sexta-feira, setembro 27, 2013

Preferences And Prejudice


Walter E Williams - Preferences And Prejudice

Liberalismo e democracia no pensamento de Mises, Hayek, Rothbard e Hoppe

91º Podcast Mises Brasil - André Azevedo Alves

Obamacare


Remy: Obamacare Video Contest Song

Minimum Wage, Maximum Nonsense

Minimum Wage, Maximum Nonsense por Dom Armentano:
The law of demand operates in all markets including and especially labor markets. If I operate a lawn service or a car dealership or if I’m a large box retailer, any increase in the price (cost) of labor that is not accompanied by an increase in productivity, will decrease my incentive to hire or retain workers; with my income revenue relatively fixed, I simply must use fewer factors of production. In addition, I also have an incentive to substitute some (cheaper) non-labor resource in an attempt to maintain the overall productivity of the operation. Thus the monetary incentives associated with the income and substitution effects result in fewer workers hired or retained.

This is especially true if the “labor” under discussion is relatively inexperienced and only marginally productive .. After all, wages paid by an employer tend to reflect the estimated monetary contribution an employee is likely to make to overall production. If, for example, there is a new government minimum wage law of $10 per hour and some employees currently generate, say, only $8 in revenue for the company, those workers are on their way to the unemployment line. The law of demand will simply not allow a rational employer to retain those workers or hire workers with similar productivity profiles.
Minimum wage laws always decrease employment opportunities and always interfere with free choice and the freedom of contract. They are supported by politicians seeking votes and by labor unions anxious to cripple non-union, low cost competitors. They are also inherently discriminatory since they hurt only workers on the lowest rung of the employment ladder; workers making $30 an hour are not directly affected. And increasing the minimum wage provides no boost to overall “consumption” (as advocates maintain) since the workers displaced easily negate any (slight) income change for the workers retained.

Finally, increasing the minimum wage is hardly some “moral imperative” as some of its vocal, self-righteous advocates maintain. Indeed, government-mandated minimum wages are an immoral infringement on individual rights and an inefficient economic hoax parading as enlightened public policy. “I’m from the government and I’m here to help you…the working poor.” Don’t buy it.

The Sunk Costs Fallacy


Julia Galef: The Sunk Costs Fallacy

a loucura dos salários mínimos

Minimum Wage Madness por Thomas Sowell:
Political crusades for raising the minimum wage are back again. Advocates of minimum wage laws often give themselves credit for being more “compassionate” towards “the poor.” But they seldom bother to check what are the actual consequences of such laws.
One of the simplest and most fundamental economic principles is that people tend to buy more when the price is lower and less when the price is higher. Yet advocates of minimum wage laws seem to think that the government can raise the price of labor without reducing the amount of labor that will be hired.
There is nothing mysterious about the fact that most people start off in entry level jobs that pay much less than they will earn after they get some work experience. But, when minimum wage levels are set without regard to their initial productivity, young people are disproportionately unemployed — priced out of jobs.
Unemployed young people lose not only the pay they could have earned but, at least equally important, the work experience that would enable them to earn higher rates of pay later on.
Minimum wage laws can even affect the level of racial discrimination. In an earlier era, when racial discrimination was both legally and socially accepted, minimum wage laws were often used openly to price minorities out of the job market.
If they thought things through, how could they have imagined that having large numbers of idle teenage boys hanging out on the streets together would be good for any community — especially in places where most of these youngsters were raised by single mothers, another unintended consequence, in this case, of well-meaning welfare policies?
Advocates of minimum wage laws usually base their support of such laws on their estimate of how much a worker “needs” in order to have “a living wage” — or on some other criterion that pays little or no attention to the worker’s skill level, experience or general productivity. So it is hardly surprising that minimum wage laws set wages that price many a young worker out of a job.

The Government


The Government Episode 1 | Episode 2 | Episode 3

números

Relembrando os grandes números:
Não resta outra escolha ao governo – a este ou a qualquer outro que lhe suceda – senão mandar às malvas a “sensibilidade social” e cortar em salários e pensões. Coisa que não tem ciência nenhuma, diga-se. É dos livros que quando é necessário reduzir a despesa, atacam-se de imediato as maiores rubricas, não se vai à procura de agrafes, cuja quantificação ficaria mais cara que a poupança que neles se obtivesse. Sobra sempre a alternativa de nova subida de impostos. Para além de ter maior impacto recessivo que o corte na despesa, é de longe a solução de maior iniquidade, pois acentuará a desigualdade entre pagadores e receptores de impostos, mais uma vez a favor destes. Questões mais “sofisticadas” de equidade que o TC ainda não atingiu.

Live by QE, die by QE


Peter Schiff Was Right - 'Taper' Edition

Rant Liberal do Dia

Os impostos devem ser baixados porque os impostos são roubo de dinheiro privado. coisas que escapam aos socialismos neoliberais (sim, pode-se juntar as duas palavras - as árvores conhecem-se pelos frutos). chega a todos a sociopatia socialista da optimização do Estado, seja "socialmente" seja "economicamente". As pessoas, tratam-nas como gado contribuinte.

quinta-feira, setembro 26, 2013

All Kids Should be FORCED to Watch South Park


3 Reasons All Kids Should be FORCED to Watch South Park!

Rant Liberal do Dia

Esta coisa de 1) defender que o Estado tenha as contas organizadas 2) defender que o Estado seja tendencialmente mais pequeno como consequência de considerações tecnocráticas ("eficiência" do Estado)... dificilmente parece-me merecedor do adjectivo "liberal". Nem sequer "economicamente liberal".

Rant Liberal do Dia

Quando alguém reclama mais "direitos sociais" (pagos com impostos, dívida, desvalorização), toda a matilha socialista reclama mais direitos sociais para _todos_, em nome da equidade, etc etc. É um mecanismo interessante porque utiliza o interesse particular para propagar o colectivismo. E assim o Estado cresce, e chegámos onde chegámos;

Quando alguém pede menos impostos, sobretudo se for para si -- o que seria um excelente mecanismo social para todos terem menos esbulho fiscal --, há outra matilha que em nome da equidade, etc etc, em vez de dizerem sim senhor, é vosso direito, tomem lá, e vamos baixar os impostos dos outros, para diminuir desigualdades de tratamento fiscal, e reduzir despesa pública porque é a raiz do mal...

...torpedeiam o processo - porque afinal o que conta é a eficiência "tecnocrática" do Estado. Manter o status quo, fazer um planeamento central do dinheiro dos outros. Tudo em nome dos agregados macro, ou dos chamados "contribuintes", ou "consumidores", ou até do "bem comum" claro...

...como se algum estatista não se arrogasse saber como utiizar o dinheiro das pessoas, de forma nobre e abnegada, para melhorar a condição de "todos".

terça-feira, setembro 24, 2013

Libertarianism: An Introduction


Libertarianism: An Introduction

leis parvas

O caminho: cumprir a lei até paralisar o país:
É muito bom que se comecem a cumprir as leis. E quando todas forem cumpridas e o país estiver paralisado com tanto cumprimento da burocracia e tanta pureza legislativa (para nem falar das regras contraditórias exigidas por organismos diferentes, ou aquelas que não se podem cumprir porque o que se pede não existe ou ainda não foi regulamentado), pode ser se que perceba que uma das maiores necessidades do país é destruir leis parvas,

Gold Robbers


Gold Gone? Germany baffled as Fed bars access to bullion

separar o Estado do dinheiro alheio

Leitura dominical:
Além de se separar o Estado da Igreja, proeza que, aliás, já foi razoavelmente consumada há décadas, convinha com urgência separar o Estado do dinheiro alheio.

Why Liberty


Why Liberty - feat. Tom Palmer

Putin vs Obama

A Plea for Caution From Russia - What Putin Has to Say to Americans About Syria:
It is alarming that military intervention in internal conflicts in foreign countries has become commonplace for the United States. Is it in America’s long-term interest? I doubt it. Millions around the world increasingly see America not as a model of democracy but as relying solely on brute force, cobbling coalitions together under the slogan “you’re either with us or against us.”

But force has proved ineffective and pointless. Afghanistan is reeling, and no one can say what will happen after international forces withdraw. Libya is divided into tribes and clans. In Iraq the civil war continues, with dozens killed each day. In the United States, many draw an analogy between Iraq and Syria, and ask why their government would want to repeat recent mistakes.
My working and personal relationship with President Obama is marked by growing trust. I appreciate this. I carefully studied his address to the nation on Tuesday. And I would rather disagree with a case he made on American exceptionalism, stating that the United States’ policy is “what makes America different. It’s what makes us exceptional.” It is extremely dangerous to encourage people to see themselves as exceptional, whatever the motivation. There are big countries and small countries, rich and poor, those with long democratic traditions and those still finding their way to democracy. Their policies differ, too. We are all different, but when we ask for the Lord’s blessings, we must not forget that God created us equal.

Do Children Have Rights?


George H. Smith: Do Children Have Rights?

The State As An Attractor for Sociopaths

The State As An Attractor for Sociopaths por Butler Shaffer:The study of chaos is helping us understand why all political systems are disruptive and destructive of life processes. Through this new science, we are discovering – contrary to Plato’s hubristic assumptions – that complex systems produce behavior that is both determined and yet unpredictable.

The state is almost universally defined as a system that enjoys a legal monopoly on the use of violence within a given territory .. the state is capable of doing no more than this: compelling people – through violence and the threat of violence – to do what they do not choose to do, or to refrain from doing what they do choose to do. Like the subjugated and exploited proletariat of Animal Farm, increasing numbers of men and women read those opening words to the preamble of the Constitution – “We the People” – and discover the identity of “the people” who control and benefit from the system that was created.

If the state is defined in terms of its enjoying a monopoly on the use of violence, what is the character of people who would be attracted to the use of its violent tools and practices? What sort of people would be attracted to careers that gave them the arbitrary power to force others to their will; work premised on the imperative of obedience?
There is a continuum running between “sociopathic” and “psychopathic” behavior separating degrees of antisocial conduct. A Post Office mail clerk, or a receptionist at a DMV office, may not exhibit such traits. But what about state officials whose functions are to enforce some governmental edict or program? The man or woman who is prepared to initiate an act of punishment to compel obedience to a governmental mandate easily segues into the SWAT team member or police brute or one who tortures another. It is the appetite for ultimate power over others that drives such people.

No more than we would expect Mother Theresa to operate a brothel can we imagine advocates of peace and liberty to be welcomed into the management of the state. This is why Ron Paul was so persona non grata to members of the political elite. He wanted to reduce – perhaps even eliminate – the violent nature of the American nation-state. He was almost booed off the stage at a Republican gathering for suggesting that this country employ the “Golden Rule” as the basis for a foreign policy! He wanted to minimize that which attracts the sociopaths and psychopaths to the state: the opportunity to use ever-increasing levels of destructive violence against their fellow humans.

Freedom fighters unite


Freedom fighters unite at LPAC, and the White House is their target

Primeiro as pessoas

Primeiro as pessoas por José Manuel Moreira:
Foi assim que, dos 5% do produto nacional até finais do século XIX, se chegou aos cerca de 50% de gasto público. Transformando o Estado, dito social, numa monstruosa máquina democrática de redistribuição compulsiva da riqueza da sociedade por três vias: transferência, tomando aos Pedros (favorecidos) para dar aos Zés (desfavorecidos); fornecimento de bens e serviços gratuitos ou a baixo custo, confiscando a uns (os contribuintes) para dar a outros (os utilizadores); e por meio das diversas formas de regulação ou de proteccionismo.
Ora, sem o reconhecimento dos efeitos perversos desta máquina de redistribuição da riqueza e rendimento, torna-se difícil compreender o porquê de na época contemporânea se ter reforçado a tendência para o agravamento do processo de infantilização e degeneração moral da sociedade civil. Um processo de redução do incentivo a trabalhar, a poupar ou a investir... mas também de tranformação de pessoas previdentes em irresponsáveis e de adultos em crianças...
Ora, só pondo a nu o princípio organizador das nossas sociedades - o clientelismo político - se percebe como um Estado protector de direitos se transformou numa fraudulenta máquina de redistribuição. E se entendem tantas resistências e espúrias concertações. Até ao dia em que reformas "politicamente impossíveis" se tornem "economicamente inevitáveis"...

segunda-feira, setembro 23, 2013

A Conversation On The Free Market


Milton Friedman - A Conversation On The Free Market

Politicians are asshats

Public Choice Theory: Skwire’s First Law:
Skwire’s law is simply stated thusly: Politicians are asshats. …
Saying that politicians are asshats means that you acknowledge the deep truths of public choice theory. It means that even if the occasional politician supports a policy you like or gives a speech you admire, you know enough not to turn him or her into a hero. We can debate, as my friends and I have on Facebook, whether asshats become politicians or politicians become asshats. I don’t think that debate much matters, because I think both parts of it are true. Politics is a machine that turns good people and good ideas into bad ones, and turns bad people and bad ideas into worse ones. Politics is a system that attracts not only people who want to help, but people who want to control. And once those people—good or bad, helpful or controlling—are in the system, they use it to further their ends.
.. the fact that political power gives politicians coercive power to make decisions about the resources and the choices of others means that even those who have good intentions and good ideas can, do, and often must use control and coercion to satisfy those intentions and attempt to implement those ideas.
The incentives are inherent in the institutions, and they are bad incentives that lead to inferior outcomes and to politicians being asshats. Of course there are nuances and degrees of asshattery, especially if you look on an issue-by-issue basis at the questions you find most pressing. But remember the initial formulation: occasional support that aligns with your preferences does not change the fundamental, underlying institutional incentives.
Realizing this nature of political institutions opens up the idea that political processes are not necessarily the only or the best way to approach social conflicts and problems. Thinking about alternatives, about experimenting with different approaches, about the impossibility of doing away with all social problems, gives us opportunities to be creative and to enable other approaches to emerge.

Why Are American Health Care Costs So High?


Re: Why Are American Health Care Costs So High?

Quantitative Easing

Quantitative Easing Worked For The Weimar Republic For A Little While Too:
There is a reason why every fiat currency in the history of the world has eventually failed. At some point, those issuing fiat currencies always find themselves giving in to the temptation to wildly print more money.
It is really easy to start printing money, but it is incredibly hard to stop. Like any addict, the Fed is promising that they can quit at any time, but this month they refused to even start tapering their money printing a little bit.
But at this point the Fed is caught in a trap. If it continues to pump, the financial bubbles that it has created will get even worse. If it stops, those bubbles will burst.
As the rest of the planet starts to reject the U.S. dollar and starts to demand a much higher rate of return to lend us money, the U.S. economy is going to experience a tremendous amount of pain.

It is hard to put into words how foolish the Federal Reserve has been. The Fed is systematically destroying what was once the strongest financial system in the world, and in the end we are all going to pay the price.

non-interventionism


Ron Paul With Charlie Rose: ‘The Meaning of Non-Interventionism’

argumentos contra o euro

Sete argumentos austríacos contra o euro por Ubiratan Jorge Iorio:
1º. O euro não foi capaz de assegurar a separação entre o dinheiro e a política
2º. Governos irresponsáveis são a regra e governos responsáveis a exceção
3º. O euro não toca na questão do monopólio do dinheiro
4º. O euro não se mostrou uma boa proxy para o regime do padrão ouro
5º. O euro agride frontalmente o princípio da subsidiariedade
6º. O euro agride a história da moeda como uma ordem espontânea
7º. Taxas de câmbio são preços e devem ser determinadas por compradores e vendedores

The Myth of War Prosperity


Gregory: The Myth of War Prosperity

Withdrawing Consent

Withdrawing Consent Means More Than It May Seem por Michael S. Rozeff:
To withdraw consent is far-reaching. It means a divorce from the state insofar as this is possible. It means having no loyalty to the state, seeing the state as fundamentally unfair and a source of continual injustices, being unwilling to help the state in any way, assuming and feeling no responsibility for the state’s actions, and seeing the state as hostile to peace and society. It means not participating in its rituals and having no appreciation of its symbols or myths. It means a psychological divorce from feeling positive about or approving of its victories. It means working toward the state’s opposite, that is, living together in freedom, friendship, comity and peace, i.e., in society. It means no longer thinking of oneself as a citizen, and not believing that as a citizen one has obligations toward the state or other citizens.
.. The ways by which freedom will win are way beyond my powers to know. The important thing is to get the tide flowing toward justice and away from the state, and that people have a clear understanding of what this means and why they should move in that direction.

Public Choice

Embora bastante fraco para o fim, até os especialistas em public choice preferem ficar por "Estados angelicais" quando as consequências do que ensinam não lhes agradam....


Padilla: Public Choice

The Rational Choices of Crack Addicts

The Rational Choices of Crack Addicts:
“If you’re living in a poor neighborhood deprived of options, there’s a certain rationality to keep taking a drug that will give you some temporary pleasure,” Dr. Hart said in an interview, arguing that the caricature of enslaved crack addicts comes from a misinterpretation of the famous rat experiments.

“The key factor is the environment, whether you’re talking about humans or rats,” Dr. Hart said. “The rats that keep pressing the lever for cocaine are the ones who are stressed out because they’ve been raised in solitary conditions and have no other options. But when you enrich their environment, and give them access to sweets and let them play with other rats, they stop pressing the lever.”
So why do we keep focusing so much on specific drugs? One reason is convenience: It’s much simpler for politicians and journalists to focus on the evils of a drug than to grapple with the underlying social problems. But Dr. Hart also puts some of the blame on scientists.

“Eighty to 90 percent of people are not negatively affected by drugs, but in the scientific literature nearly 100 percent of the reports are negative,” Dr. Hart said. “There’s a skewed focus on pathology. We scientists know that we get more money if we keep telling Congress that we’re solving this terrible problem. We’ve played a less than honorable role in the war on drugs.”